The state of being extremely poor is defined as Poverty. And what are the actual Causes Of Poverty In India is a very important and sensitive topic that we should discuss very carefully.
According to the definition by the World Bank, Poverty in terms of economy is the one earning less than $1.90 per day.
According to Sociologist, Poverty is the lack of money that cannot pay for basic necessities such as food and shelter. Sociologist say race and sex sometimes play the major role for cause of poverty. For example, in U.S black are poorer than whites.
In 1995 United Nations adopted two definition of poverty.
*Absolute Poverty: A condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services.
*Overall Poverty: Lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods, hunger and malnutrition, ill health, limited or lack of access to education and other basic services, increased morbidity and mortality from illness, homelessness and inadequate housing, unsafe environments and social discrimination and exclusion. It is also characterized by lack of decision making.
Introduction Of Poverty In India :
The Indian definition of poverty: It defines poverty in terms of annual income, but in terms of consumption or spending per individual over a certain period for a basket of essential goods. Since 2007, India has set its official threshold at Rs. 26 a day in rural areas and Rs. 32 per day in urban area. So we can say that there are two types of poverty in India, one is Rural Poverty In India and other is Urban Poverty In India.
We saw different definitions for poverty because poverty depends solely on many factors. In this article I am going to Discuss The Major Reasons For Poverty In India.
Main Causes Of Poverty In India:
World Bank has estimated that the poverty level of India can increase as high as 234 million as compared to 189 million due to climatic change. One has to deeply think over climatic issue as one of the factors for poverty. Climatic change will result in crop failure and poor health conditions which are the factors for poverty in India.
Crop failure: Due to climatic change, crop yield will decrease which will ultimately result in inflation. So, it is natural that when inflation creates, poverty level will increase simultaneously.
Poor health: due to climatic variation, people suffer from health issues. Most of the people suffer from malaria, dengue, diarrhea which push them for expensive medication. Hence, people pay more for medicine and ends in bankruptcy which leads to poverty.
One can measure a country’s development by the availability of its good infrastructure. When road, rails are not properly managed it leads to poverty in some extent. India is in the transition phase of development so, infrastructure is lacking. Due to poor transport communication, agricultural marketing is not functioning well. Power supply and raw materials do not reach the industry and at the same time finished products do not reach the market for marketing.
LACK OF INDUSTRIALISATION IS ONE OF THE MAIN CAUSES OF POVERTY IN INDIA:
In developing countries, there are several drawbacks regarding proper functioning of industrialization. India still depends on agriculture more than industries. Scarcity of labor, lack of infrastructural facilities, industrial conflict, and lack of capital leads to improper functioning of industries which in turn results in inflation of industrial products. This hence, results in increase of poverty level in India.
POOR AGRICULTURAL PERFORMANCE:
This has been the most striking feature for the causes of poverty in India. The agricultural system is not functioning well. The poor farmers burden with debt and commit suicide. The indebtedness of farmers causes poverty in India specially in rural areas. As India depends on agriculture, the country as a whole suffers from poverty.
NON-IMPLEMENTATION OF LAND REFORM:
Land reform means institutional factors related to land. The land holding, farming structure, land distribution etc. are the institutional factors related to land reforms. In India all these factors are not properly implemented which causes low yield of crops which in turn causes inflation of final products. Not only this, non-implementation of land reform causes poor agricultural performance which ruins the lives of poor farmers of India. Hence, non implementation of land reforms become one of the causes of poverty in India.
India is predominantly a rural country. Two third of its population is residing in rural areas. Agriculture is the prime sector of rural economy and rural employment. No serious attempts have been made to check rural employment so as to increase the rural economy. Due to poor standard of rural economy, people are shifting towards urbanization. In urban areas too, they reside in jhugga and slum areas. The wages paid to these labors are much lower than the price of food which they have to pay. Hence, the result is poverty.
Also Read: Is India Really Free From Child Labour?
LACK OF INCLUSIVE GROWTH:
“Inclusive growth is a concept that gives equitable opportunities for economic participants during economic growth of every section of society.” Growth in microeconomics and macroeconomics leads to inclusive growth. The results of five year plans of our country clearly depict the growth of our country. In most of the plans, the target growth was not achieved. The slogan “Garibi Hatao” was one of the targets of the five year plan which is still not achieved. Hence, lack of inclusive growth is also one of the important causes of poverty in India.
Unemployment and under employment is one of the causes of poverty in India. Till today, India is not able to employ properly to its people. People are not employed according to their capability. Most of people especially the youths of our country are either unemployed or under employed which results in poverty.
UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME:
In India the rich are getting richer and the poor the poorer. This means that the incomes are not distribute well. It is in the hands of few upper classes people. The person who lacks this facility moves downward towards the line of poverty.
POPULATION GROWTH IS ONE OF THE IMPORTANT CAUSES OF POVERTY IN INDIA:
India is the second most populated country after China but it has reached such a position that after few years it will turn out to be the most populated one. Population growth is one such factor which leads to poverty. When population increases, the demand of products and services increases which in turn increases the price of the products and services. Hence, poverty level of the Indian increases day by day.
SIZE OF FAMILY:
Size of family is directly proportional to population growth. When size of the family increases, at ultimatum prices of everything climbs the ladder as there will be scarcity of food and either product. So, size of the family is a hidden factor of poverty.
INFLATION OF FOD PRICES:
Inflation means to rise up. When the prices of food rises up, the poor people cannot achieve it which in turns leads to poverty. Hence, inflation of food prices is directly proportional to poverty. So, we must keep in mind that inflation of things leads to increase in poverty level.
In this 21st Century India still faces Gender inequality in some areas. In the family with huge members, the bread winner is just the male member of the family. The burden of looking after the large family members leaves the family towards below poverty line.
Also Read: Are Women Really Secured?
Most of the rural people do not receive the facility of proper education. Education reduces the chances of falling under the roof of poverty but they lack the facility. Hence, the manual works has become as hereditary work. Only few turn out to rise from the level of poverty but for most of them the tag of poverty is ascribed one. And it stands as one of the major causes of poverty in India.
CORRUPTION IS THE KEY FACTOR FOR CAUSES OF POVERTY IN INDIA:
India is one among the most corrupted countries in the world. It is the blessing of corruption that the facility which government gives for the inclusive and sustainable growth of the poor gets hijacked. The poor remains where they were and the rich, luckier ones get facilitated and climb towards the ladder of richness.
WHAT THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA HAS DONE FOR THE SOLUTION OF POVERTY IN INDIA ?
The Government implements various schemes to reduce the level of poverty. The previous Government has implemented it whereas the present too is implementing various schemes for the welfare to poor.
1.To fight with the diseases caused by Poverty, Government has initiated Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP). It ensures quality medicines for all section of population especially poor and deprived one.
2. It has adopted a multi dimensional seven point strategy to achieve agriculture as income oriented rather than production oriented.
3. Continuation of umbrella scheme “Green Revolution- Krishnonnati Yojana” to improve nutritional security and income support to farm households.
4. Launched National food security Mission (NFSM) for increase in production of wheat, rice and pulses and ensure food security of the country.
5. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY), Soil Health Management (SHM), Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY), Deendayal Antayodaya Yojana (DAY-NRLM), Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) all launched to directly or indirectly help the people in poverty level.
6. Government has initiated to distribute food and oil to BPL Family in the lowest price through PDS.
HERE ARE SOME WAYS TO REDUCE POVERTY IN INDIA THAT WE CAN DO AS AN INDIVIDUAL :
We as an individual in the society can do lots of things. If each person of India works out selflessly to help the persons who are in need, they can get what the government has for them. And if a single person is able to adopt a single child and looks after his/her studies, all the children belonging to below poverty level will be educate and will help to mobilize their statuses in the society.
If rich people instead of spending lavishly for their entertainment donate some amount for the welfare of the people belonging to poverty line, he/she will help them uplift from their misery and agony.
So I have thrown some lights on this issue; Causes Of Poverty In India. And its very true that a single person cannot change the scenario but “we” together can change the scenario of our country. Government is working in its part and now it is our duty to help the Yojanas of the government reaches the deprived people. And one day we together will make a New India that world will proud.